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Antique Adding and Calculating Machines

Adding and Listing Machines


Eureka Adding Machine Carriage with Burroughs Adding Machine, 1905


William S. Burroughs (1855-1898) invented an adding and listing machine with a full keyboard in the early 1880s, submitted a patent application in 1885, co-founded the American Arithmometer Co. in 1886 to produce the machine, and received a patent for his invention in 1888. After its Bankers' and Merchants' Registering Accountant machine failed in trials in 1890, the American Arithmometer Co. marketed its improved Burroughs Registering Accountant in 1892 for $475 (Kidwell 2000). In 1905, the company was renamed the Burroughs Adding Machine Co.

In 1894, an article -- clearly referring to the Burroughs Registering Accountant -- reported that "An ingenious adding machine, recently introduced in Providence banks, is said to be infallible in results, and to do the work of two or three active clerks.  Inclosed in a frame with heavy plate-glass panels, through which the working of the mechanism can be seen, the machine occupies a space of 11 by 15 inches and is nine inches high.  On an inclined keyboard are 81 keys, arrange in nine rows of nine keys each.  The printing is done through an inked ribbon." (The Bankers' Magazine, Aug. 1894)  An 1899 discussion of modern banking methods stated that "great assistance has been derived from certain mechanical labor-saving contrivances, among which I will mention the typewriter, the registering accountant or adding machine, and the telephone. The registering accountant is of comparatively more recent introduction, but I think I can safely say it has proved itself one of the most useful instruments even introduced to the banks." (Bankers' Magazine, Feb. 1899)

The following table provides data on worldwide sales of Burroughs machines from 1895 through 1926. Through 1910, the data cover only adding-listing machines. Beginning in 1911, the data also cover calculators and other types of bookkeeping machines. 

Worldwide Sales and Use of Burroughs Machines

Year Number Sold Total Sold Since 1895 (from Column to Left) Other Cumulative
Data
Year Number Sold Total Sold Since 1895 Other Cumulative
Data
Year Number Sold Total Sold Since 1895 Other Cumulative
Data
1895 286 286 . 1901 2,122 6,424 Over 8,000 in use 1907 13,300 . 54,834 in use in August
1896 418 704 . 1902 3,163 9,587 . 1908 1 every 10 minutes every business day. 63,574 sold by Jan.
60,000 firms using by Sept.
1897 498 1,202 . 1903 4,446 14,033 . 1909 15,763 . Used by 70,000 firms
1898 729 1,931 . 1904 5,008 19,041 17,000 in use during year 1910 . . 103,750 users
1899 972 2,903 Used by 2,000 commercial houses, banks, etc. 1905 7,804 26,845 Over 22,000 in use in March. 1911 . . Over 130,000 users
1900 1,399 4,302 Over 5,000 users in Sept. 1906 . . 40,263 in use in October 1925 . . Over 750,000 in use
. . . . . . . . 1926 . . 1,000,000th made
1926_Burroughs_millionth_adx.jpg (70914 bytes)

Source: James W. Cortada, Before the Computer, 1993, Tables 2.2-2.3, and Burroughs advertising claims, 1899-1926.

A 1900 ad stated that Burroughs Registering Accountants had been used "in the largest banks in New York City" for five years. A Sept. 1900 ad stated that the Burroughs Registering Accountant was "Used by over 5000 banks, small as well as large." In March 1905, Burroughs claimed that "there are over 22,000 of these machines now in constant use among banks, mercantile houses, department stores, factories, gas and electric light companies, railroads, express companies, lumber dealers, etc." In 1906, Burroughs claimed that as of October 5 of that year, 40,000 of its machines were in use in over 30,000 concerns and that "ninety per cent of all adding machines sold are Burroughs." Burroughs advertised an electric model in 1906. Burroughs manufactured its 50,000th machine in 1907 and claimed that the 13,300 machines that it sold during 1907 exceeded "the combined sales of all other makes of adding machines during all the years of their existence." In 1908 Burroughs offered 58 models, "One built for every line of business." The many models varied in number of columns, the width of the paper onto which they printed, whether they were designed for computations involving fractions, feet and inches, pounds and ounces, etc., and whether they had features such as counters and split keyboards.  In 1908 Burroughs also stated that "Nine out of ten adding machines in use are Burroughs."  In 1910 Burroughs offered 74 models with between 6 and 17 columns of keys and began advertising some of its models as bookkeeping machines. In 1911 there were 78 Burroughs models ranging in price from $175 to $850.  In 1916 there were 98 models, including a  machine with 17 columns of keys priced at $615-$715. In 1928, Burroughs claimed that 100,000 Burroughs Portables had been sold.  In 1935, Burroughs offered 450 standard models.

[Insert Oldsmobile ad from System 1904]

To put the prices of Burroughs adding machines in the early 20th century into perspective, consider the fact that in 1904 the Oldmobile Standard Runabout was $650, while the Oldsmobile Light Tonneau Car was $950.

During the first decade of the 20th century, Burroughs faced competition from both key-driven calculators and a number of rival adding-listing machines, including Dalton, Pike, Standard, Universal, and Wales. Unlike Burroughs, these competing machines had "visible" printers that printed in view of the operator. Pike, Universal, and Wales machines had full keyboards like the machines produced by Burroughs. By contrast, Dalton and Standard machines had ten-key keyboards. 

In 1908, Burroughs acquired the Universal Adding Machine Co., which described its products as "A Typewriter Carriage on an Adding Machine." In 1909, Burroughs acquired the Pike Adding Machine Co. and in the same year began to sell Burroughs Pike visible adding machines. In 1911, Burroughs introduced its Burroughs Class 3 visible adding machines based on the Pike design. In 1914, following an antitrust suit, Burroughs was enjoined from buying competing companies.

Also in 1911, Burroughs introduced a key-driven calculator that looked very much like a Felt & Tarrant Comptometer. In 1912, the Burroughs Calculator was $150. Felt & Tarrant sued Burroughs for patent infringement based on the similarity of the cases, and Burroughs modified the appearance of its calculator. 

In 1921, Burroughs acquired the Moon-Hopkins Billing Machine Co.  Moon-Hopkins and other combination typewriter-adding machines are discussed and illustrated in the Early Office Museum's exhibit on Special Purpose Office Typewriters.

Burroughs Adding and Listing Machines

Description

Image
Click to Enlarge

Bankers' and Merchants' Registering Accountant
1890
American Arithmometer Co.
St. Louis, MO
National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC
Ten of these machines were produced, but they were not successful in trials.  
1890_Burroughs_SI_OM.jpg (29330 bytes)
Burroughs Registering Accountant
Introduced 1892 ~ Advertised 1892-1901
American Arithmometer Co.
St. Louis, MO
1892 Price $475
The Commercial Adding Machine Co., St. Louis, MO, exhibited a Registering Accountant at the 1893 Columbian Exposition in Chicago; presumably, this was the machine exhibited.
In 1902, the product name was changed to Burroughs Adding Machine.

Source of image: Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 
Burroughs Corp. Collection, cb000562.
1891_Burroughs_Registering_Accountant_AAC_St_Louis_ad_detail_cb000562_OM.jpg.jpg (44702 bytes)
1892 ad
Bank Office with Burroughs Registering Accountant, Oliver No. 1 Typewriter, Copying Press, and Vault
Photo is on a divided back postcard and therefore dates from 1907 or shortly thereafter, but the Burroughs dates from at least a few years before 1907.
Office_with_Burroughs_Registering_Accountant_OM.JPG (262812 bytes)
Burroughs Adding Machine (Class 1 Style 4)
Patented 1888-98
American Arithmometer Co.
St. Louis, MO
In 1906, Burroughs advertised Styles No. 3, 4, and 5, which differed in
number of columns and in width of paper tape.
Source: Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 
Burroughs Corp. Collection, cb000242.
1898_Burroughs_Style_No._4_Adding_Machine_made_1898-1903_cb000242_OM.JPG (43728 bytes)
Burroughs Adding Machine (Class 1 Style 5)
Burroughs Adding Machine Co.
Detroit, MI
Source: Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis,
Burroughs Corp. Collection, cb000243.
Burroughs_No._5_Adding_Machine_chassis_cb000243_OM.JPG (44513 bytes)
Burroughs Adding Machine (Class 1)
Advertised 1905-07
Burroughs Adding Machine Co.
Detroit, MI
1905_Burroughs_illustration.jpg (26667 bytes)
Burroughs Adding Machine (Class 1) in Office at B-logo Business Systems Department
1907
Source: Charles Babbage Institute, Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis,
Burroughs Corp. Collection, cb000184.
cb000184_1907_Office_with_Burroughs_Model_6_OM.JPG (50240 bytes)
Burroughs Adding Machine (Class 1) at the Bank of Hickman, Hickman, NE Bank_of_Hickman_Man_with_Burroughs_Adding_Machine_2OM.jpg (137281 bytes)
Burroughs Adding Machine (Class 1 Style 7)
1908
Burroughs Adding Machine Co.
Detroit, MI
1908_Burroughs_No._7__OM.JPG (16731 bytes)
Burroughs Adding Machine (Class 1 Style 9)
1911
Burroughs Adding Machine Co.
Detroit, MI
1906_Burroughs_No._9_marketed_1911_OM.jpg (43842 bytes)
Burroughs Bank Subtractor Machine
1913
Burroughs Adding Machine Co.
Detroit, MI
Source: Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 
Burroughs Corp. Collection, cb000207.
1913_Burroughs_Bank_Subtractor_Machine_cb000207_OM.JPG (36250 bytes)
Burroughs Duplex Adding Machine
1913
Burroughs Adding Machine Co.
Detroit, MI
Courtesy of the Museum of Business History and Technology
MBHT_1913_Burroughs_Duplex_adding_machine_with_woman.jpg (267488 bytes)
Burroughs Electric Light & Gas Billing Machine
1915
Burroughs Adding Machine Co.
Detroit, MI
Source: Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 
Burroughs Corp. Collection, cb000200.
1915_Burroughs_Electric_Light_or_Gas_Billing_Machine_cb000200_OM.JPG (54429 bytes)
Burroughs Adding Machine (Class 3)
Introduced 1911 ~ Advertised 1913-27
Burroughs Adding Machine Co.
Detroit, MI
Burroughs_class_3_awe.jpg (54477 bytes)
Office with Burroughs Adding Machine (Class 3)
Not earlier than 1912
Insurance agency office
Dover, NH
Mr_Henderson__Aunt_Edith_Insurance_Office_Dover_NH_OM.JPG (52052 bytes)
Burroughs Adding Machines and Calculator
1915 Advertisement
Burroughs Adding Machine Co.
Detroit, MI
Class 1 machines were advertised at $250-$615,
Class 3 machines at $125-$350, 
and the Burroughs Calculator at $175.
In 1916, Burroughs 17-column electric machines were $615-$715.
1915_Burroughs_Adding_Machine_Ad_OM.jpg (83565 bytes)
Burroughs Bookkeeping Machine (17 columns, electric)
1925 Advertisement
1925_Burroughs_Bookkeeping_Machine.jpg (53934 bytes)

Other Adding and Listing Machines Introduced by 1910

A company named the "Columbian Adding Machine Co." issued stock certificates in 1897 and existed in New Jersey in 1898.  We do not know whether it actually produced an adding machine.

In 1906, it was reported that "Among listing machines the Burroughs may be said to easily lead the list in numbers of machines made and sold. The Universal Adding Machine is probably next, followed by the Standard machine and the Wales Adding machine." Other listing machines on the market in 1906 were Mallman's Addograph (Chicago), American Addograph (Philadelphia), Bundy Adding Machine (Binghamton, NY), Commercial Adding Machine (Cleveland), Comptograph (Chicago), Pike Adding Machine (Orange, NJ), and Wendling-Hock Machine, made by the California Adding Machine Co. (San Francisco). However, it was reported that the latter machines "are as yet practically unknown to the general public, and it is rare to see them in either banks or business houses." (The Business Man's Magazine, Aug. 1906, p. 62) The Addograph was produced by the Mallman Addograph Mfg. Co. during 1903-08 and sold for $275. (P. Kidwell, "'Yours for Improvement'--The Adding Machines of Chicago, 1884-1930," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, July-Sept. 2001, pp. 3-21)  E. H. Beach, Tools of Business, 1905, also mentions an electrically controlled McCaskey Calculating and Listing Machine, manufactured by the McCaskey Electric Calculator Co, Chicago, IL.  Referring to this full set of adding-listing machines, Beach states "These machines are necessarily expensive in construction and vary in prices from $185 to $400."   By comparison, Beach states, "Among the non-listing machines,...The Comptometer, Mallman Addometer, The Mechanical Accountant, The Beach Calculating Machine....are sold at prices from $75 to $150."

Description

Image
Click to Enlarge

Adding Machine
Photograph 1895
Invented by Fred A Eastman
Duplex Typewriter Co.
Des Moines, IA
1895_Adding_Machine_Invented_by_Fred_A_Eastman_Duplex_Typewriter_Co_Des_Moines_IA_OM.JPG (59830 bytes)
Dudley Typewriting and Adding Machine (a.k.a. Numerograph)
Scientific American May 23, 1896
Numerograph Mfg. Co.
Charleston, WV
1896_THE_DUDLEY_TYPEWRITING_AND_ADDING_MACHINE_Sci_Amer_5.23.1896_OM.jpg (77495 bytes)
Standard Adding Machine  
(a.k.a. Hopkins Adding Machine, New Standard Adding Machine)
Patented 1891-1901 ~ Introduced 1899
Advertised 1904-10 (Standard), c. 1915-1917 (New Standard)
Standard Adding Machine Co., St. Louis, MO (through 1910)
New Standard Adding Machine Co., St. Louis (c.1915-1917)
Based on serial numbers, 3,400 machines were sold by Jan. 1905.
1904-06 Price $185 (Standard and then Model B), 1907 & 1911 Prices $185-$250 (Standard)
1910 Prices $160-$250 (Standard), 1916 Price $125 (New Standard)
Photograph of Model B courtesy of Larry Wilhelm.
1891_Standard_Model_B_adding_machine_ofcpro_1.jpg (49557 bytes)
Model B
1907_Standard_Adding_Machine_Co_Model_E_OM.jpg (55677 bytes)
Model E, 1907 ad
Hiett Adding and Listing Machine (a.k.a. Universal Adding Machine)
 Patented 1897-1903 ~ Introduced by 1900 (see photo below)
Advertised late 1890s (Hiett), 1905-10 (Universal)
Universal Accountant Machine Co., St. Louis, MO (1897-1905)
Universal Adding Machine Co., St. Louis, MO (1905-10)
Electric motor attachment introduced 1903
The Universal Adding Machine Co. was acquired by Burroughs Adding Machine Co. in 1908. 
Universal Adding Machine may have operated as a division of Burroughs during 1908-10.
Peggy Kidwell kindly provided useful information on these machines and companies.



cb000158_1900_Universal_Adding_Machines.jpg (77502 bytes)
Universal Adding Machines at the National Business Show in 1900.
Charles Babbage Institute, Univ. of Minn., Minneapolis, Burroughs Corp. Collection, cb000158
Hiett_Adding_and_Listing_Machine_Universal_Accountant_Machine_Co_St_Louis.jpg (102299 bytes)
Hiett, late1890s
1897_1900_Universal_No._5_Universal_Accountant_Machine_Co_St_Louis_1.jpg.JPG (38938 bytes)
Universal No. 5, Universal Accountant Machine Co., patented 1897-1900
1906_Universal_Adding_Machine_Co_ad1_OM.jpg (34981 bytes)
Universal, 1906 ad
Dalton Adding Machine
Patented 1899-1912 ~ Introduced 1902 ~ Advertised 1909-28
Addograph Manufacturing Co, St. Louis, MO (1903)
Adding Typewriter Co., St. Louis, MO (1903)
The Dalton Adding Machine Co., Poplar Bluff, MO (c. 1903-14), 
Norwood, Cincinnati, OH (1914-16)
1915 Price $125-$150; 1926 Price $100
Dalton merged with other companies to become Remington Rand in 1927.
1918 ad stated "2000 Daltons serving the Government in times of peace." 1919 ad stated that the US government had over 3,000 Daltons. A later ad stated "The United States Government uses over 4000 Daltons" and indicated that "Tens of Thousands" were in use. An undated ad stated "Choice of 50,000 users."
The 1928 Remington Rand catalog offered Dalton adding-listing machines ranging from models similar to the one pictured here (but without glass sides) to bookkeeping machines and a bookkeeping cash register.
1913_Dalton_Adding_Machine.jpg (57267 bytes)
 1913 ad
Dalton_Poplar_Bluff_MO.jpg (44208 bytes)

 Made at Poplar Bluff,  MO
Minnesota_1911_pf026733.jpg (47017 bytes)
Dalton in office, 1911. 
Minnesota Historical Society, pf026733
Pike Adding Machine
Introduced 1904 ~ Advertised 1905-07
Pike Adding Machine Co., Orange, NJ
Acquired by Burroughs Adding Machine Co. in 1909. 
Operated as a division of Burroughs 1909-11.
MBHT_Pike_Adding_Machine_Co_Orange_NJ.jpg (228797 bytes)
Pike Manual
Courtesy of the Museum of Business History and Technology

Pike_adding_machine.jpg (76848 bytes)
Pike Electric
1910_Burroughs_Pike_Adding_Machine_adv_OM.jpg (206365 bytes)
Burroughs Pike Adding Machine, 1910 ad
Bundy Adding Machine
Patented 1905 ~ Advertised 1904-06
Bundy Mfg. Co.
Binghamton, NY (1904), Endicott, NY (1905)
1904_Bundy_Adding_Machine.jpg (91898 bytes)
Wales Adding Machine, Model 10 and Model 20
Patented 1903-13 ~ Introduced 1905 ~ Advertised 1908-1925
Adder Machine Co., Wilkes-Barre, PA (1906-14)
Wales Adding Machine Co., Wilkes-Barre, PA (1925)
1914 Price $175 and up.
1916 brochures list over 2,000 banks using Wales machines and 54 companies
 (not all of them banks) that were using from 5 to 83 each.
1908_Wales_Adding_Machine_Co._OM.jpg (38146 bytes)
Model 10, 1908 ad
York_Foundry_NE_1911.jpg (36069 bytes)
Wales Adding Machine, probably Model 10, at Office Room, York Foundry, York, NE, 1911
MBHT_Wales_Visible.jpg (108710 bytes)
Wales manual/electric
MBHT_Wales_Model_20.jpg (237242 bytes)
Model 20
Mallman Addograph
Made 1903-08 and marketed c. 1916
Mallman Addograph Mfg. Co.
Chicago, IL (1905)
Peru, IN (c. 1916)
This company also made the non-listing Mallman Addometer as of 1905.
Mallmann_Addograph_Mfg_Co_Peru_IN_identified_as_1916.JPG (55982 bytes)
c. 1916 ad
Commercial Adding and Listing Machine
Advertised 1908 (Connecticut Computing Co.)
Connecticut Computing Machine Co., New Haven, CT (1908)
White Adding Machine Co., New Haven, CT (c. 1909-14)
Marketed in manual and electric models.
In 1905, The Commercial Adding Machine Co, Cleveland, OH, introduced its Commercial Adding and Listing Machine.
We do not know whether this company became the Connecticut Computing Machine Co.
1908_Connecticut_Computing_Machine_Co_ad_OM.jpg (65748 bytes)
Connecticut Computing Machine Co., 1908 ad
MBHT_1909-14_Commercial_Adding_Machine_White_Adding_Machine_Co_p._1.jpg (119084 bytes)
White Adding Machine Co.
MBHT_1909-14_Commercial_Adding_Machine_electric_White_Adding_Machine_p._3.jpg (152505 bytes)
Electric model, White Adding Machine Co.
Second and third images courtesy of the Museum of Business History and Technology
 

Adding and Listing Machines Introduced Between 1910 and 1921

Table Under Construction

Description

Image
Click to Enlarge

White Adding Machine Co., New Haven, CT MBHT_1909-14_White_Adding_Machine_Co_New_Haven_CT.jpg (128966 bytes)
Whetmore, advertised 1911 .
Barrett Adding Machine, Model 12, 1913, $175. Barrett Adding Machine Co., New York, New York MBHT_Barrett_Adding_Machine_Co_NYC.jpg (200765 bytes)
Listing machines were $185-$250 at the time of this ad. Non-listing machines were $110-$160.
Sunstrand, 1914, $125-$175. In 1924, Sundstrand advertised that over 50,000 of its machines were in use. MBHT Sundstrand Adding Machine No 3 c.1911.jpg (116389 bytes)
Sunstrand Adding Machine No. 3, c. 1911.  Machines were $125-$225 at the time of this ad.
Duco Adding Listing Machine, Duco Adding Machine Co, St. Louis, MO.  Marketed briefly in 1914, production suspended during World War II, marketed again in 1918. MBHT_1914_Duco_Adding_Listing_Machine.jpg (147269 bytes)
c. 1918
International Adding and Listing Machine, International Money Machine Co., Terre Haute, IN, and Reading, PA, Advertised 1914, $300, Marketed during 1915 MBHT_International_Adding__Listing_Machine_Int_Money_Mach_Co__c._1915.jpg (156280 bytes)
American Adder, No. 4, 1915, $88 American_Adding_Machine_Model_4_adder-lister_1.jpg (23962 bytes)
Gancher Portable Adding Listing Machine
Advertised 1915, 7 column $50, 9 column $65
Automatic Adding Machine Co., New York, NY
MBHT_1915_Gancher_Adding_Machine.jpg (194104 bytes)
MBHT_1915_Gancher_Portable_Adding__Listing_Machine_Auto_Adding_Machine_Co_NYC.jpg (228924 bytes)
Morse Pre-Vis Adding Machine
Introduced 1912 ~ Patented 1914 ~ Advertised 1915-17
Morse Adding Machine Co.
Chicago, IL
.Price $100 in 1915. 
This adding-listing machine has 9 keys, fits inside an 8" cube, and weighs 12.5 lbs.
The name "Pre-Vis" comes from "pre-visible." which refers to the fact that when a key is struck, 
the number shows up immediately on a register and can be corrected being being listed or accumulate.
..
Federal A Visible Adding and Listing Machine, patented 1904-1918, marketed before and after World War I, $300 shortly after World War I.
Federal Adding Machine Corp., New York, NY
MBHT_Federal_Adding_Machine.jpg (210848 bytes)
1904_1918_Federal_Visible_Model_A_Fed_Adding_Mach_Corp_NYC_om.jpg (107095 bytes)
Automatic Adding Machine, Automatic Bookkeeping Register Co., 1918.  As of 1918, the company had acquired patent rights and designs for this machine, but had not yet set up manufacturing. MBHT_1918_Automatic_Adding_Machine.jpg (305363 bytes)
Design, 1918
Sum-a-Graph, Sun Typewriter Co., New York, NY MBHT_Sum-a-Graph_Sun_Typewriter_Co_NYC.jpg (216931 bytes)
McCaskey, patented 1919-20, McCaskey Register Co., Alliance, OH .1919_1920_The_McCaskey_Register_Company_Alliance_OH_om.jpg (138272 bytes)
Victor Adding Machine Co., which began selling adding-listing machines in 1921, sold 100,000 of its $100 Model 110 by 1925 (E. Darby, It All Adds Up: The Growth of Victor Comptometer Corporation, 1968, pp. 58-59). .
 


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